Nano Indenter® G200x

A production-proven platform, the Nano Indenter G200X is capable of measuring Young’s modulus and hardness, including deformation, from nanometres to millimetres. Complex modulus and creep response are also supported. Highly flexible and upgradeable, and designed for high throughput. The G200X system handles a wide variety of samples from hard coatings to soft polymers and offers the most comprehensive test suite available in the KLA Instruments nanoindenter product line.

Manufacturer

KLA

A global technology leader who make an impact by creating solutions that drive progress and transform industries. Collaboration is the key to their success. KLA provide leading-edge technology and devices using advanced inspection tools, metrology systems, and computational analytics. Their solutions accelerate tomorrow’s electronic devices. The enable evolution and innovation in the data era across key industries including automotive, mobile and data centre.

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Nano Indenters

Key Features

  • Electromagnetic actuator to achieve the high dynamic range in force and displacement
  • High resolution optical microscope and precision XYZ motion system for viewing, positioning and targeting samples
  • Easy mount sample tray with multiple sample positions for high throughput testing
  • Modular options for testing beyond indentation for SPM imaging, scratch testing, high temperature nanoindentation measurements, dynamic testing (CSM) and high-speed testing
  • Intuitive interface for quick test setup; testing parameters can be changed with just a few mouse clicks
  • Real-time experimental control, easy test protocol development and test setup
  • Full suite of InView software including ReviewData and InFocus for analysing data and creating reports
  • Award-winning, high-speed testing for material property maps and increased statistical confidence
  • InQuest high-speed controller electronics with 100kHz data acquisition rate and 20µs time constant

Precise Mechanical Testing for Micro-To-Nano Range of Loads & Displacements

The Nano Indenter® G200X system is an accurate, flexible, user-friendly instrument for nanoscale mechanical testing. The Nano Indenter G200X measures Young’s modulus and hardness, including measurement of deformation over six orders of magnitude (from nanometres to millimetres). The system can also measure the complex modulus of polymers, gels and biological tissue, as well as the creep response (strain rate sensitivity) of thin metallic films. Modular system options can accommodate a variety of applications: frequency-specific testing, quantitative scratch and wear testing, integrated probe-based imaging, high-temperature testing, expanded load capacity up to 10N, and custom test protocols.

KLA Core Technology

The Nano Indenter G200X is powered by electromagnetic transducers to deliver precise measurements and avoid artefacts in the x and y axes. The system is designed to provide accurate sample positioning, easy sample viewing, and simple sample height adjustment. In its standard configuration, the G200X utilizes the XP indentation head, and a modular controller that allows users to add capabilities as needed. In addition, the G200X gives users the ability to program each transducer for specific measurements, and switch between them at any time. The system has a small footprint to conserve lab space and conforms to ISO 14577 to ensure data integrity.

The G200X system provides a wide array of imaging capabilities, including a survey scanning mode that is ideal for scratch and wear testing on large samples, or for working with large, irregularly-shaped, and/or heterogeneous samples.

Continuous Stiffness Measurement (CSM)

The CSM option measures stiffness during the indentation cycle to measure material properties as a function of depth, force, time or frequency.

AccuFilmTM allows for characterization of ultra-thin films by correcting for substrate influence on the measurement

ProbeDMATM enables dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) on soft polymers and other materials with sample geometries and/or material volumes that are not suitable for standard DMA tests

Biomaterials Method Pack provides the ability to measure the complex modulus of biomaterials with shear moduli on the order of 1kPa . Utilizing the CSM module, the pack includes a flat-punch tip and a test method for evaluation of viscoelastic properties

NanoBlitz 3D Rapid Mechanical Property Mapping

Quickly and quantitatively maps surface mechanical properties. Gives statistically significant results due to the increased number of observations. Measures rough surfaces and/or heterogeneous materials.

The NanoBlitz 3D option measures elastic modulus and hardness as a function of (x, y) position, generating thousands of data points in a short period of time. The quantitative data is combined with powerful visualisation techniques to assess differences in microstructure and gradients in mechanical properties.

NanoBlitz 4D Mechanical Property Tomography

Extends the Continuous Stiffness Measurement (CSM) technique to include mechanical property tomography

To assess elastic modulus and hardness as a function of (x, y) position and depth, NanoBlitz 4D option rapidly creates a user-defined array of constant strain rate indents using the CSM module. Because each indent is performed in about 7 seconds, the system can generate a statistically significant amount of data to accurately characterise complex microstructures and components.

Scanning Probe Microscopy Options

NanoVision Stage

Featuring a closed-loop nano positioning stage for high-resolution 3D imaging and precise targeting, NanoVision allows users to target indentation test sites with nanometre-scale precision and characterize individual phases of complex materials. NanoVision users can also examine residual impressions to quantify material response phenomena such as pile-up, deformed volume and fracture toughness.

Survey Scanning

The Survey Scanning option utilises the accurate, repeatable (x, y) motion of the Nano Indenter G200X system to provide a maximum scan size of 500μm by 500μm. The NanoVision stage and Survey Scanning options can be used together for precise location targeting for nanoindentation tests, particularly valuable for determination of sample fracture toughness.

Lateral Force Measurement (LFM) Option

The Lateral Force Measurement (LFM) option provides three-dimensional quantitative analysis for scratch testing, wear testing and MEMS probing by enabling shear force measurement in the x and y directions. Tribological studies benefit greatly from the LFM option, for determination of the critical load and coefficient of friction over the scratch length. Scratch testing applies a constant or ramped load to an indenter while moving across the sample surface, and can be used for thin films, brittle ceramics and polymers.

Industries

  • Universities, research labs and institutes
  • Semiconductor industry
  • PVD/CVD hard coatings (DLC, TiN)
  • MEMS: Micro-electro-mechanical systems/nanoscale universal testing
  • Ceramics and glass
  • Metals and alloys
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Coatings and paints
  • Composites
  • Batteries and energy storage
  • Automotive and aerospace

Applications

Hardness and Modulus Measurements (Oliver-Pharr)

Mechanical characterisation is critical in the process and manufacture of films, including the quality of coatings in the automotive industry, as well as during process control of front-end and back-end semiconductor manufacturing.

The G200X nanoindenter is capable of measuring hardness and modulus for a wide variety of materials, from ultra-soft gels to hard coatings. The high speed assessment of these properties enables quality control and assurance on production lines.

High speed material property maps

For many materials, including composites, the mechanical properties may vary widely from one area to the next. The G200X system provides a sample stage movement of 100mm in the X and Y axes, and 25mm in the Z axis, allowing testing of a wide range of sample heights over a large sample area. The optional NanoBlitz Topography and Tomography software can quickly generate colour maps of any of the measured mechanical properties.

ISO 14577 hardness testing

The Nano Indenter G200X includes a pre-written ISO 14577 test method that measures material hardness in compliance with the ISO 14577 standard. This test method automatically measures and reports Young’s modulus, instrumented hardness, Vickers hardness and the normalized work-of-indentation.

Interfacial adhesion measurement

Thin film delamination is generally induced by depositing a highly compressive layer that can store elastic energy. The interfacial adhesion measurement is critical to assist users in understanding the failure mode of the thin film. Nano Indenter G200X systems can initiate the interfacial fracture and measure the adhesion and residual stress properties of the multiple-layer thin film.

Fracture Toughness

Fracture toughness is the critical value of the stress-intensity factor at which catastrophic failure occurs under plane-strain conditions. Lower values of fracture toughness indicate a pre-existing flaw. Evaluating fracture toughness by nanoindentation is accomplished easily by using the Stiffness Mapping method. (Stiffness mapping requires the Continuous Stiffness Measurement and NanoVision options.)

Viscoelastic Properties

Polymers are exceptionally complex materials; their mechanical properties depend on chemistry, processing and thermo-mechanical history. Specifically, the mechanical properties depend on the type and length of the parent chain, branching, cross-linking, strain, temperature, and frequency, and these dependencies are generally interrelated. In order to gain useful information for making decisions when designing with polymers, mechanical property measurements should be made on a relevant sample in a relevant context. Nanoindentation testing makes such context-specific measurements more accessible, because samples can be small and minimally prepared. The Nano Indenter G200X system can also be used to measure complex modulus and the viscoelastic properties of the polymer by oscillating the indenter while in contact with the materials.

Scanning probe microscopy (3D imaging)

The Nano Indenter G200X system provides two scanning probe microscopy methods to characterise the crack length of indentation impression for measurement of fracture toughness in design applications. Fracture toughness is defined as the ability of a defective material containing a crack to resist fracture. The piezo stage of the Nano Indenter G200X, with its high positioning accuracy combined with the NanoVision option, provides up to 1nm encoder resolution of step size with a maximum 100µm by 100µm scan size. The Survey Scanning software option combines the X/Y motion system with InView software to provide a maximum scan size of 500µm by 500µm. Both the NanoVision stage and Survey Scanning option are required to target precise areas of samples for nanoindentation testing and calculation of fracture toughness.

Quantitative scratch and wear testing

The G200X system can perform scratch and wear testing on a variety of materials. Coatings and films are subjected to many processes that test the strength of these films and their adhesion to the substrate, such as chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) and wire bonding. It is important for these materials to resist plastic deformation during these processes, and to remain intact without blistering up from the substrate. Ideally, a dielectric material will have a high hardness and elastic modulus because these parameters help define how the material will react when subjected to manufacturing processes.

High temperature nanoindentation testing

Nanoindentation at elevated temperatures is critical to characterising material performance under thermal stress, especially for quantifying failure mechanisms during thermomechanical processing. Varying the sample temperature during mechanical testing enables not only measurement of thermal-induced behavioural changes, but also quantification of transition plasticity of materials that are not easily tested on the nanoscale.

Industry

Hard Coatings

Typically, < 5µm thick hard coatings are applied to materials for surface protection, increased wear resistance, friction/lubrication, temperature resistance, and biocompatibility. The Nano Indenter G200X system can accurately perform ISO standardised nanoindentation testing and measure elastic modulus and hardness of the coating without influence from the substrate. The Nano Indenter G200X is also capable of measuring scratch hardness and wear resistance. In the case of high surface roughness coatings, the NanoBlitz 3D option can be used to quickly and quantitatively assess material properties.

Semiconductor Wafers

Semiconductor manufacturers often strive to produce thin films with high mechanical integrity, but low film flexibility can lead to cracking or delamination. Undetected defects at the substrate and epitaxial layers can also result in latent defect and crack propagation, which can lead to device failure. KLA nanoindenters are capable of measuring elastic modulus and hardness of the thinnest films, as well as fracture toughness and cracking threshold, all without artefacts from the underlying substrate. Correlating nanomechanical properties to process parameters is critical to maximise semiconductor device yield.

Semiconductor Packaging

The performance and lifetime of an electronic component can depend upon the integrity of its packaging. Our nanoindenters allow semiconductor packaging manufacturers to assess the mechanical properties of polymer underfills, solder strain-rate sensitivity, and the strength of metallic components.

Ceramics and Glasses

Ceramics and glasses are important materials used in many applications for their unique optical, mechanical, and electrical properties. Traditional mechanical testing of ceramics and glasses (e.g., 4-point bending) can be time-consuming and expensive. The G200X tool allows for rapid characterisation of elastic modulus and hardness of small volumes of material. The scratch testing capability is also well-suited to quantitatively assess the scratch resistance of optical coatings.

Polymers and Plastics

Polymers and plastics are used in many applications due to their time-dependent deformation properties. Whether used as vibration dampers, extrusion materials, or medical implants, polymers are often analysed via dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). In many cases, the geometries of plastic components are not suitable for traditional DMA instruments. KLA nanoindenters are able to locally target areas on a plastic component and examine frequency-dependent storage and loss moduli and loss factors regardless of the geometry of the sample. Viscoelastic creep and stress relaxation properties can also be measured with the Nano Indenter G200X.

Metals and Alloys

Metals and alloys play an important role in many industries, such as automotive, aerospace, medical, and semiconductor. Traditional mechanical testing of metals and alloys (e.g., tensile testing) can be time-consuming and expensive. The G200X allows for rapid characterisation of small volumes of material. It also allows users to characterise elastic modulus, hardness, and creep resistance, as well as gradients in these properties as a function of spatial location.

Batteries and Energy Storage

Mechanical properties of battery materials are closely tied to the battery’s stability, charge capacity, and lifetime. The Nano Indenter G200X system is well-suited for testing a wide range of battery materials, from soft lithium to hard ceramic substrates. The Nano Indenter G200X provides advanced measurement solutions in many environments, including dry rooms and glove boxes.

Research and Development

KLA Instruments nanoindenters are not only built for the precision and accuracy required by demanding R&D applications but are also flexible scientific instruments. Whether measuring the mechanical properties of novel materials, examining the deformation mechanisms of metals, or analysing strain-rate sensitivity as a function of temperature, the Nano Indenter G200X provides a wide range of nanoindentation measurement capability to enable advanced research and accelerate development.

Pharmaceutical, Food and Personal Care

The mechanical properties of pharmaceuticals, food, and personal care products are strongly linked to customer satisfaction and experience. The elastic modulus or stiffness of a material can be related to texture and feel. The mechanical properties of coatings are also critical to on-time drug delivery. The G200X system provides quantitative information that supplements qualitative customer feedback.

Automotive and Aerospace

KLA Instruments nanoindenters allow advanced characterisation of materials as a function of temperature, a key capability for automotive and aerospace applications. Strength, stiffness, and time-dependent mechanical properties are all measurable using Nano Indenter G200X’s nanoindentation techniques.

Nanoscale Universal Testing

The G200X systems are capable of measuring nanoscale mechanical deformation and other nanomechanical properties. Measurement of nanoindentation, compression, tension, creep, stress relaxation, and fatigue are examples of the system’s versatile capabilities. Standard and custom experimental methods are supported. The dedicated scientists in the nanoindenter group at KLA are also available for consulting and experiment design.

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Technical Specifications

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Nano Indenter® G200x Brochure

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Options

InForce 1000 Actuator

The InForce 1000 actuator performs nanomechanical tests with forces up to 1000mN. The patented electromagnetic force application ensures robust measurements and long-term force and displacement stability. Industry-leading mechanical design ensures one-degree of freedom harmonic motion so that force and displacement are controlled along a single axis. The tips are interchangeable with the entire line of InForce actuators. The InForce 1000 actuator is compatible with the CSM, NanoBlitz, sample heating, scratch, wear and ISO 14577 testing options.

InForce 50 Actuator

The InForce 50 actuator performs nanomechanical tests with forces up to 50mN. The patented electromagnetic force application ensures robust measurements and long-term force and displacement stability. Industry-leading mechanical design ensures one-degree of freedom harmonic motion so that force and displacement are controlled along a single axis. The tips are interchangeable with the entire line of InForce actuators. The InForce 50 actuator is compatible with the CSM, NanoBlitz, ProbeDMA ™, biomaterials, sample heating, scratch, wear and ISO 14577 testing options.

Continuous Stiffness Measurement (CSM)

Continuous stiffness measurement is used to quantify dynamic material properties, such as strain rate and frequency-induced effects. The CSM technique involves oscillating the probe during indentation to measure properties as a function of depth, force, time, or frequency. The option comes with a constant strain rate experiment that measures hardness and modulus as a function of depth or load, which is the most common test method used across academia and industry. CSM is also used for other advanced measurement options, including the ProbeDMA™ method for storage and loss modulus measurements and AccuFilm™ substrate-independent measurements. The CSM is integrated into the InQuest controller and InView software to deliver ease of use and data quality.

NanoBlitz 3D

NanoBlitz 3D utilizes the InForce 50 or InForce 1000 actuator and a Berkovich tip to generate 3D maps of nanomechanical properties for high-E (> 3GPa) materials. NanoBlitz performs up to 100,000 indents (300×300 array) at < 1s per indent, and provides Young’s modulus (E), hardness (H), and stiffness (S) values at a specified load for each indent in the array. The large number of tests enables increased statistical accuracy. Histogram charts show multiple phases or materials. The NanoBlitz 3D package includes visualization and data handling capabilities.

300°C Sample Heating

The 300°C sample heating option allows the sample to be placed into a chamber for uniform heating while simultaneously undergoing tests with either the InForce 1000 or InForce 50 actuators. The option includes high-precision temperature control, inert gas backfill to reduce oxidation, and cooling to remove waste heat. ProbeDMA, AccuFilm, NanoBlitz and CSM are all compatible with the sample heating option.

NanoBlitz 4D

NanoBlitz 4D utilizes the InForce 50 or InForce 1000 actuator and a Berkovich tip to generate 4D maps of nanomechanical properties for both low-E/H and high-E (>3GPa) materials. NanoBlitz performs up to 10,000 indents (30×30 array) at 5-10s per indent, and provides Young’s modulus (E), hardness (H), and stiffness (S) values as a function of depth for each indent in the array. NanoBlitz 4D utilizes a constant strain rate method. The package includes visualization and data handling capabilities.

AccuFilm™ Thin Film Method Pack

The AccuFilm Thin Film Method Pack is an InView test method based on the Hay-Crawford model for measuring substrate-independent material properties using Continuous Stiffness Measurement (CSM). AccuFilm corrects for substrate influence on film measurements for hard films on soft substrates, as well as for soft films on hard substrates.

ProbeDMA™ Polymer Method Pack

The Polymer Pack provides the ability to measure the complex modulus of polymers as a function of frequency. The pack includes a flat-punch tip, a viscoelastic reference material, and a test method for evaluation of viscoelastic properties. This measurement technique is key to characterizing nanoscale polymers and polymer films that are not well-served by traditional dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test instruments.

Biomaterials Method Pack

The Biomaterials Method Pack provides the ability to measure the complex modulus of biomaterials with shear moduli on the order of 1kPa and utilizes Continuous Stiffness Measurement (CSM). The pack includes a flat-punch tip and a test method for evaluation of viscoelastic properties. This measurement technique is key to characterizing small scale biomaterials that are not well-served by traditional rheometer instruments.

NanoVision

The NanoVision option features a closed loop nanopositioning stage for high-resolution 3D imaging and precise targeting. NanoVision allows users to target indentation test sites with nanometer-scale precision and characterize individual phases of complex materials. NanoVision users can also examine residual impressions to quantify material response phenomena such as pile-up, deformed volume and fracture toughness.

Survey Scanning

The Survey Scanning option utilizes the accurate, repeatable X/Y motion of the Nano Indenter G200X system to provide a maximum scan size of 500μm by 500μm. 10nm linear encoders provide improved imaging over the G200. The NanoVision stage and Survey Scanning options can be used together for precise location targeting for nanoindentation tests, particularly valuable for determination of sample fracture toughness.

InView Software Versions

All Nano Indenter G200X systems are powered by the standard InView software. The NanoSuite Professional version gives users access to pre-written test methods, including methods that comply with ISO 14577 standards. The InView Method Development option enables researchers to write their own InView test methods using a simple protocol. The InView software suite includes InView ReviewData and InFocus applications that make reviewing data and creating presentations easy. InView features a Simulation Mode so that users can write test methods, process and analyse data offline.

G200X Semi Pack

The G200X Semi Pack is a comprehensive test package designed to help improve yields and reduce latent defects for semiconductor and compound semiconductor films. The Semi Pack includes a wafer tilt chuck, AccuFilm™ Ultra Method Pack, Adhesion Method Pack, Thin Film Scratch Method Pack, Analytical Scanning Probe Microscopy, and automated routines for testing, image capture and survey scanning.

Service Support

Comprehensive repairs and servicing

Annual Support Programs

Your metrology instrumentation is a major investment that is critical to your business operation and success. In today’s competitive climate, it is more important than ever to extend the functionality and peak performance of your metrology equipment years beyond the expiration of your factory warranty. CN Tech’s Support Programs will help ensure that your investment is protected, and that you and your instrument’s are always operating at peak performance.

With over 20 years’ experience servicing and repairing you can be assured that your system is in safe hands. The independent services we offer include system relocation, maintenance visits, parts and consumables, and break down interventions.

CN Tech’s Support Programs are an economical way to guarantee optimal working condition:

  • Annual Preventive Maintenance
  • Priority Technical Assistance
  • Preferred Parts Availability
  • On-Site User Training
  • Remote Diagnostics
  • No surprise repair expense and much more!

Support Contact Example

An example of our service and support contracts are shown below:

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Metrology & Instrumentation Annual Support Programs 2022/23

CN Tech's Support Programs will help ensure that your investment is protected, and that you and your instrument’s are always operating at peak performance.

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